An oil skimmer can be either stationary or moving, manual or mechanically operated units designed to collect the free-floating oil built up on the water top layer in any tank. Based on the application-industry type and amount of oil present in the effluent, tank dimensions, and mode of operation various types of oil skimmers are designed. 


In a tank where floating thick oil/fat is present in the effluent and in cases where a larger tank length requires oil skimming, chain and flight skimmer mechanisms are suggested. The flight mechanism will be connected to the chain and is driven via the drive and driven shaft. This motor-driven oil skimmer mechanism will be a continuously operated design and the skimmed oil/fat will be scrapped off to a collection chute from where oil/fat can be collected by gravity. 


As the name indicates, a slotted pipe oil skimmer is designed with a cut pipe and will have a welded steel plate on the outside to allow oil to accumulate in the pipe area. These types of slotted oil skimmers are stationary and will be installed at end of the tank covering the entire width of the tank to collect the top layer of free-floating oil built up in the tank. Oil will be pushed to the slotted pipe skimmer either by chain-type oil scrapper or will flow along with the effluent flow. The skimmer will either have a hand lever or geared shaft to rotate the pipe to move back and forth to facilitate oil movement into the skimmer.



A Belt type of oil skimmer is designed with an oleophilic belt supported with a pulley and will be mounted on a metallic frame. The belt will be immersed vertically into the tank and when it rotates, the belt picks up the oil from the surface of the effluent in the tank. A wiper assembly made of Teflon scrapper will scrape off the oil adhering to the belt into the small collection tray, which is part of the belt skimmer frame. The belt skimmer is motor driven and will be mounted to one tank corner. The belt width and capacity of the skimmer will be chosen based on the oil contamination present in the effluent. Multiple belts can be provided in a single motor-driven unit to cover the maximum possible width of the tank. 



A floating funnel skimmer is designed based on the principle of buoyancy between the floating funnel frame and the outlet hose connected at the outlet of the funnel. This skimmer can cover the entire tank surface area collecting the surface floating oil into the funnel. The oil removal will be continuous in this skimmer design. The floating funnel skimmer is gravity operated and doesn’t require any external factor to run the skimmer around the tank. These skimmers are specifically designed where oil contamination is high and also require to cover larger oil skimming surface area.


A floating drum oil design has a rotating drum that picks up the oil when it moves around the surface of the effluent. The oil picked up by these drum skimmers will be scrapped off by a wiper into an integrated oil collection tray. The drum oil skimmer is motor driven and is suitable where a larger tank surface area has to be covered to remove surface floating oil. 

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Cross Flow Separator [CFS]


CFS [Cross-Flow Separator] is a unique indigenous K-Pack design, designed to remove oil and TSS. As the name indicates, this gravity-type oil-water separator is designed in such a way that the oil and TSS flow out will be perpendicular to the inlet flow of wastewater into the unit, resulting cross-flow pattern. The separation is defined by Stoke’s law which used differences in densities of oil, and TSS to that of wastewater. Because of the flow pattern, the removal efficiency of oil and TSS can be achieved by up to 90%.

The area required for the separation is provided by a horizontally projected corrugated plate which is spaced at a distance of 30-50 mm at an angle inclination of 55 degrees. The wastewater, when it passes through the inclined plates leads to oil agglomeration and rises to the top layer of the wastewater which is then scooped off using a manually operated slotted pipe oil skimmer or using a motorized chain skimmer, depending on the oil type. The heavy solids slide down the plate pack and are collected in the conical hopper bottom. 


CFS can also be combined with coagulation and flocculation units prior, to increasing the settlement of suspended solids.

Application: leachate treatment, food industry, pre-treatment processes. 

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K-Pack’s MBR is an indigenous membrane reactor-based design technology developed to meet stringent treated water quality for sewage wastewater.  

K-Pack MBR operates on the principle of biological/bacterial treatment. Raw untreated wastewater is sent to the MBR reactor using a pre-filter screen to prevent any larger debris, plastics, etc. clogging the reactor. K-Pack MBR module is a bioreactor fitted with the necessary set of air diffusers and filtration membrane with a pore size ranging from 0.1 microns to 0.01 microns. The residence time of wastewater within the reactor is controlled by the drawing rate from the membrane module. Treated water is drawn from the reactor using a suitable pump. As the pore size of the membrane is too small to allow any bacteria or other contaminants to pass through,  the treated water at the outlet of the membrane is clean with reduced organic content. This water is thereafter dosed with necessary chlorine for disinfection and sent for eventual reuse or discharge.


-Better COD/BOD reduction compared to ASP,  MINA FM, and others.

-Lower sludge production

-Higher nutrient removal compared to the conventional process

-Lower footprints are required

-Better treated water quality

Why K-Pack MBR?

In a conventional biological treatment process, the bioreactor and gravity clarifier are two separate units limiting the MLSS handled by the process. This limitation leads to a higher footprint of the plant and higher sludge volume. In the contemporary process, though the footprint and sludge are less, the plant is tricky to operate as there needs to be a precise biological film development on the carrier. This biological film carrier limits the treatment capacity of the process and also requires more energy compared to the activated sludge

process. Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) based platform decouples reaction and clarification,  making operation at higher MLSS possible. Also,  as a majority of the bacterial mass is in suspension,  the efficiency is better than its contemporary. Thus, MBR based system

by K-Pack is a very powerful tool to treat sewage wastewater in the most stringent of conditions.  In the K-Pack MBR process, sewage treatment operates at a very high MLSS  (Mixed  Liquor Suspended Solid) compared to other conventional Activated Sludge processes leading to significant benefits in space,  time, and performance.

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Screening is the preliminary process of the waste-water treatment plants. A screen is a device designed to remove water impurities such as floating solid materials, grit, plastic materials, etc that may hinder the primary treatment process. Based on the size of the impurity to be removed, the screens are classified into three categories: micro, fine, and coarse screening. Based on the type of operation, the screening is classified into manual and mechanical screening. K-Pack is into designing fine and coarse scenes and the types are described below:


As the name suggests, the manual bar screen is the hand-operated screen. The design consists of parallel rods welded together with a spacing of 6 mm [in the case of the fine screen] or 10 mm and above [in the case of the coarse screen]. The dirt collected at the rear of the screen has to be manually cleaned using a rake.


The curved basket screen can be either a manual or mechanically operated screen. The design of the screen will have equally distanced rods that are bent to form a basket structure. The basket will be lowered into the wastewater to collect the floating matter/debris and lifting [which can be manual or mechanical] 


The curved DSM [Dutch State Mines] Screen is a manually operated sieve screen and is a stationary screen. When the effluent flows perpendicular onto the curved concave surface of the screen, the edge bar screen surface collects floating materials and the clear water free of debris flows out from the bottom nozzle outlet. 



The mechanical rake bar screen is the improved version of the manual bar screen, where the surface of the bar screen is cleaned automatically using a motorized rake mechanism. In K-Pack’s mechanical rake bar screen, a belt conveyor is also provided to collect the scrapped material off the screen. This type of screen can be used as a both fine and coarse screen by maintaining the spacing between the bars.


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Dissolved Air Floatation [DAF] Unit

DAF [Dissolved Air Floatation Unit] is an indigenous K-Pack design for the removal of free, emulsified oil and suspended solids [TSS]. The impurities such as oil, TSS, part of the color, and turbidity removal are achieved by dissolving air in the water at 4.5 bar pressure [using various designs such as multi-stage side channel pumps, air dissolving tubes (ADTs) or high-pressure saturation vessels] which is then releasing it in atmospheric designed DAF tank. This results in tiny air bubbles, that adhere to the impurities resulting in buoyancy resulting in floating on the top layer of wastewater in the DAF tank. The heavier solids are removed from the DAF bottom using the hoppers/screw augor/peripheral scrappers mechanism. 

K-Pack has majorly two different DAF models: PWF series and PWL series.

The PWF series is a rectangular-only type DAF in which the separation area is provided by the projected corrugated plate that is spaced with a 30 mm distance at a 60-degree angle inclination. The design is compact when compared with conventional PWL series DAF units. 


PWL DAF series is designed in rectangular or circular modules providing the area of separation in the form of length x breadth or Diameter of the tank. 

Application: food industry, paper & pulp industry, textile industry, tannery, meat processing units, automobiles, refinery, kitchen waste effluent treatment, dye industry, desalination process, pharmaceutical effluent, CETP effluent, electroplating industry, steel & cement manufacturing units., etc


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Designed to remove heavier suspended solids [TSS] from the wastewater, lamella is an indigenous design of K-Pack. The gravity settler, where effluent/wastewater flows through evenly spaced [usually between 50mm to 80mm] plate pack media and overflows into the outlet launder providing clearer water free of TSS. The counterflow fashion flow between wastewater and the suspended solids results in TSS removal of up to 90%. 

Usually, the separated sludge slides down the plate pack media and will be collected at the conical hoppers-this design is usually referred to as lamella counterflow.  When the effluent flow rate is very high, constructing conical sludge hoppers becomes tedious and uneconomical in which case, peripheral central-driven sludge scrapper mechanisms are used which are referred to as lamella clarifiers. 

Applications: leachate treatment for solid separation, desalination, river water treatment, borewell water treatment, STP application., etc

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Suitable for manual operation provision may be made for power operation.Seasoned castings used for minimum distortion.Construction of ample weight and maximum rigidity. Robust sections of frame and door and scientific ribbing for additional strength.Adjustable wedge blocks to ensure positive closure of the shutter under low pressure or even back pressure conditions. Rising or non rising spindle of mild steel or stainless steel material.Foundation bolts for erecting the gate frame and operating hoist. A simple or worm geared operation hoist with gun metal nut and fitted with thrust ballbearing.Wall thimble to enable to remove the frame and shutter without disturbing concrete.


• Suitable for manual operation provision may be made for power operation

• Seasoned castings used for minimum distortion

• Construction of ample weight and maximum rigidity. Robust sections of frame and door and scientific ribbing for additional strength

• Adjustable wedge blocks to ensure positive closure of the shutter under low pressure or even back pressure conditions

• Rising or non rising spindle of mild steel or stainless steel material

• Foundation bolts for erecting the gate frame and operating hoist. A simple or worm geared operation hoist with gun metal nut and fitted with thrust ballbearing

• Wall thimble to enable to remove the frame and shutter without disturbing concrete.

• Adjustale wall brackets having vertical and horizontal adjustments

• Flush bottom closing if desired in-lieu of the bottom seating face can be provided


GATE FRAME: In closing grained homogeneous cast iron or mild steel fabricated with or without seating face secured by screws or rivets. Machined and hand scraped to match a similar face on door., Side guide strip of cast iron or mild steel with tapered wedges on the underside.

DOOR: of cast iron with cast reinforcements ribs or mild steel plate with vertical and horizontal stiffeners having seating face secured by screws or rivets, duly machined and hand scraped to match on then back tapered wedges to match tapered side guide strips on the frame

Integrally cast-lug to take a strong beating pin for non-rising spindle units on the integrally cast pocket to accommodate a Gun Metal nut.

GA Drawings


The common arrangement for operating single-faced slice by hand operation. Depending on the nature of the spindle floor mounted headstocks are offered with extension rods, coupled and guide brackets.






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API Separator


API separator is a generic term used to refer to the gravity-type rectangular channeled oil-water separator that is designed based on “API421 guidelines for design and operation of oil-water separators”. K-pack follows the first edition published in February 1990. This OWS [Oil-water separator] is designed for the separation of free-floating oil globules from the waste-water stream. The design is relayed on the density difference between oil globules to that of effluent water and is defined by ‘Stokes’s Law’ and is applied to the laminar flow condition.

Oil globule sizes of 150 microns and above are removed with closer to 90% design efficiency. When designed using API421 design criteria, the API channel leads to oil globule coalescing and rises due to buoyant forces to form an oil layer on top of the API channel. This layer is then scrapped off using a chain skimmer mechanism which also runs down to scrape off the heavier sludge which is collected at the bottom of the API separator. 

Applications:  The design is majorly used in refinery applications where a shock load of oil is expected which needs a larger area of separation. Also, the design is limited to the removal of free-floating oil of 150 microns and above only. 

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Flash mixers and Flocculators are conventional mixers used for chemical coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment processes.

The flash mixer is a rapid mixing unit that is designed for a retention time ranging from 30 seconds to 3 min [Typical]. The design of the Flash mixer includes impellor blades located connected vertical shaft and rotates in an axial direction.  This vertical shift is driven by a speed reducer [gear box] and an electrical motor.

Rapid mixing usually occurs in the regime of turbulent flow in which inertial flow predominates. Higher the velocity, and the greater the turbulence, the more efficient the mixing will be. The purpose of a Flash mixer is to destabilize or finely divide particles [impurities like solids or emulsified oil] using chemicals called coagulants. 

Typical chemicals used for chemical coagulation in water and wastewater industries are Alum [Aluminum Sulfate], FeCl3, and PAC [Poly Aluminum Chloride]. The chemical quantities that are to be added for the water and wastewater treatment process have to be found out through a jar test.

Flocculator is a slow mixing unit that is designed for a retention time ranging from 10 minutes to 30 minutes [Typical]. The flocculator design consists of a series of appropriately spaced paddles mounted on either horizontal or vertical shafts. This vertical shift is driven by a speed reducer [gear box] and an electrical motor.

The slow-moving paddles in the flocculator promote increased particle contact which in turn increases particle agglomeration or formation of flocs. Flocculation is a transport step that brings about the collisions between the destabilized particles [as a result of chemical coagulation] needed to form larger particles that can be removed readily by settling units [DAF or lamella]. 

Typical chemicals used for chemical flocculation in water and wastewater industries are Poly electrolytes [anionic or cationic]. The chemical quantities that are to be added for the water and wastewater treatment process have to be found out through a jar test.

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A pipe flocculator is a plug-flow type reactor used for chemical coagulation, flocculation, de-emulsification, pH correction, etc under well-defined conditions. In a pipe flocculator, the mixing energy required for chemical mixing is obtained by turbulence in the main pipe and mixing pipe. The retention time is almost uniform and mixing energy is constant in the pipe cross-section. As such, all particles will be subjected to the same amount of mixing energy for the same period, which will result in a highly uniform chemical mixing with excellent separation characteristics.

A coagulant is usually dosed with raw water/effluent at the inlet of the pipe flocculator. Immediately after the dosing point a mixing unit is installed for the mixing where the coagulant mixes with effluent. Mixing energy and reaction energy in the mixing unit and the pipe is a result of turbulence (Reynolds number). 

Coagulation is the destabilization of the polluted matter in the raw water. Fine particles are formed, which are not ideal for separation. Flocculant has to be added to obtain separable particles. When the coagulation is completed a flocculant is dosed. The mixing of water and the flocculant takes place in a second mixing unit. Floc growth will further be completed in the pipe following the mixing unit. In this way a uniform, ideal floc can be formed for the separation of floc and water in a separator. 

Application: chemical coagulation, flocculation, de-emulsification, pH correction

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